If effectively managed, social sector organizations are powerful vehicles for meeting human needs and for alleviating human suffering. They could also fulfill the needs of their volunteers for individual achievement and citizenship within a community. Sometimes we forget about the individual needs of the volunteers. This is why it is so important to have a clear mission and vision of the organization. Because these volunteers are desiring to achieve and bring good to the organization it is very important that nonprofits define performance measures congruent with the results and with their mission.
This week’s entry in A Year With Peter Drucker (Maciariello, 2014) deals with the fact that Peter Drucker believed the Salvation Army to be the most effective organization for meeting human needs and for developing its volunteers.
“The Salvation Army is by far the most effective organization in the U.S. No one even comes close to it in respect to clarity of mission, ability to innovate, measurable results, dedication and putting money to maximum use…. They know how to work with the poorest of the poor and the meanest of the mean.” ~ Peter Drucker
The management process for The Salvation Army has strong alignment. The mission is converted to results for each program. Results are in turn supported by appropriate performance measures. Programs are evaluated periodically and resources are allocated to those most deserving, on the basis of performance and need. Programs that no longer serve their original intent are abandoned (Maciariello, 2014). We could all improve the organizations we lead by taking these pages out of the The Salvation Army’s play book. For me the big takeaway was the need to convert my organization’s mission statement and the mission of the stakeholders to a definition of results for our organization and for each programmatic activity we are undertaking. Then develop appropriate performance measures for each of our direct result areas. Then the essential question becomes: How close are these new measures to existing result areas and performance measures? What changes, if any, should be made?
Maciariello, J. A. (2014). A year with Peter Drucker: 52 weeks of coaching for leadership effectiveness. New York, NY: HarperCollins Publishers.
“If you focus on short-term results, they will all jump in different directions. You will have a flea circus – as I discovered during my own dismal failure some forty years ago as an executive in an academic institution… What I learned was that unless you integrate the vision of all the constituencies into the long-range goal, you will soon lose support, lose credibility, and lose respect… I began to look at non-profit executives who did successfully what I unsuccessfully tried to do. I soon learned that they start out by defining the fundamental change that the non-profit institution wants to make in society and in human beings; then they project that goal onto the concerns of each of the institutions constituencies.” ~ Peter F. Drucker
As a school leader, the entry entitled “Accommodating Various Constituencies in a Mission” in A Year With Drucker (Maciariello, 2014) really hit home with me. We know that single-purpose institutions tend to be the most effective. Yet as a school leader, and for the leaders of many organizations, it is necessary to meet the needs of a number of separate groups, and meeting these needs very often requires leaders to make trade-offs. I have always compared it to a train station roundabout where the engine sits on a rotating swivel and there are many tracks leading out. As a school leader I have all of those tracks to serve as stakeholders. Some of those stakeholders include: students, parents, charter authorizer, state, state department of education, education management company, school board, teachers, taxpayers, and the list goes on and on. As a school leader this list of at least nine constituencies sees the school a little differently. Make no mistake, each of these stakeholders is crucial to the success of the school. In my case, it even gets tougher when turning a school around. There are short-term gains that must be met, but sometimes it seems those gains are at the expense of long-term gains. How then can the leader reconcile the demand for short-term performance with the demand to care for tomorrow?
First of all, it is important for leaders to consider both the present and the future; both the short run and the long run (Maciariello, 2014). A decision is irresponsible if it risks disaster this year for the sake of a grandiose future. Likewise, if the future is risked for short-term gains; that decision is irresponsible as well. Leaders must meet the critical needs of the future (Maciariello, 2014). Leaders of all organizations must try hard to reconcile the interests of each of their constituents as they manage the short-term and long-term interests of the organization. It is very difficult to reconcile these conflicting interests of constituents around short-term goals, but much easier for leaders to integrate them around the long-term vision of the organization. A clear vision is essential, but when you deal with so many constituencies it is very difficult to stay balanced in the present and future.
For success, there must be a unified, clear vision and mission for the organization. In the past this vision and mission were much easier for schools. The mission was to learn to read and do multiplication tables. Now, the vision is much broader and includes such things as development of character, personality, social tasks, citizenship, et cetera (Maciariello, 2014). Nothing wrong with any of these things, but it has sparked the argument of what learning means. Our unifying focal point has been lost (Maciariello, 2014). With so many goals to accomplish, it is hard for the organization to function according to a unified mission.
I really like how Maciariello (2014, p. 277) ties all of this together with essential questions and would like to close with these:
“List the constituents whose needs you must satisfy in your position and in your organization. How are you meeting the needs of each constituent person or group? Which demands of these various groups conflict in the short term? Can these demands be reconciled in the longer-term goals of your organization? List the constituents again. Try to reconcile the interests of each one in your long-term goals. Which, if any, cannot be reconciled with these goals? Can you release yourself and the organization from the responsibility of meeting the irreconcilable interests of these constituents?
Maciariello, J. A. (2014). A year with Peter Drucker: 52 weeks of coaching for leadership effectiveness. New York, NY: HarperCollins Publishers.
I am a little behind in entering my weekly posts on the weekly lessons in A Year With Peter Drucker: 52 Weeks of Coaching for Leadership Effectiveness (Maciariello, 2014). This week’s entry was about developing mission statements for organizations. A good mission statement is short and focuses the attention of each member of the organization on how his or her activities fit into the overall mission of the organization. The statement tells each member what the organization is about and what it intends to do. This supports the very important concept of strategic planning as well, that every member of the organization must know his or her role in carrying out the action plan of the organization.
To that end the objective is for every person in the organization to have clear cut implications for the work they are performing. Two essential questions that Maciariello (2014) posed were: “Does your mission statement contain platitudes or is it action oriented?” and, “If adhered to will it help to fulfill your organization’s purpose?” (Maciariello, 2014, p. 270)
I would offer up the mission statement of our recently formed Focused Leader Academy. I blogged about this in Building the Bench! Our mission for this program is: Leadership needs to appear anywhere and anytime it is needed. That is about as action oriented as you can get. Additionally, if adhered to, having empowered teacher leaders will help us to fulfill our school’s overall mission. The key is to have a mission that is widely accepted and is operational.
Maciariello, J. A. (2014). A year with Peter Drucker: 52 weeks of coaching for leadership effectiveness. New York, NY: HarperCollins Publishers.
The lesson in A Year With Peter Drucker (Maciariello, 2014) on planning succession in organizations really struck home with me. In my own situation of leading a school in turnaround mode, it was obvious early that we did not have the bench strength for succession planning in most of our roles and responsibilities. Ideally, having the ability to test a number of people in highly responsible positions before making a decision is one of the safest approaches to succession. Amazingly, we just rolled out a program called “Focused Leader Academy” to do just that. I believe we should continually be mentoring the next generation, which is what we are doing with our Focused Leader Academy. I need to spend a percentage of my time mentoring the next generation. An organization that is not capable of perpetuating itself has failed. An organization therefore has to provide today the men and women who run it tomorrow (Maciariello, 2014). We must renew our human capital. We must also steadily upgrade our human resources.
“There is no success without a successor.” ~ Rick Warren
Really, the essential question when considering building the bench is: “What problems and opportunities are we likely to face as we expand globally?” For our Focused Leader Academy we started with the theory of action: IF we empower our teachers through leadership skill development… Then we will have teacher leaders ready to contribute to the success of Hoosier Academies and be an important part of our talent pipeline. This is an employee development and engagement program. The idea is that great minds and great motives still matter. Teachers with school and educational leadership aspirations will have the opportunity to become part of a cohort, which will take part in monthly training and be part of supervised Focused Leadership Projects for the schools.
The vision for this program is that leadership is born out of those who are affected by it. Our mission is that leadership needs to appear anywhere and anytime it is needed. By institutionalizing this program we are giving our emerging teacher leaders a legitimate place in the organization. I believe for high staff engagement we must be enabling our teachers to become leaders in the organization. I also believe in a strong employee leadership development program, such as our Focused Leader Academy, supported by an effective human resources organization.
So, in closing I would ask: What is your bench strength?
Last week I had the annual pleasure of being at the county fair showing dairy cows with my son. The other great part of the week is being able to visit with friends and former students. One visit I look forward to every year is from former student, Andy Clark and his family. I had him in Fundamentals of Agriculture Science and Business and Welding Technology the first year I was at Lebanon starting the Agriculture Science program. Andy is a 2005 graduate of Lebanon High School. I love catching up with him each year and hearing about all of his successes, family, and latest learning.
I have to give a little background on Andy for context. He is, and was as a student, extremely intelligent. The challenge for Andy was that he did not find most of school relevant. He grew up on a farm and is now a partner in that family farm. Andy is one of the reasons I have done so much research on teaching science in the relevant context of agriculture. Andy’s mother and I had many a conversation about her concern for Andy graduating. That concern had nothing to do with ability, and all to with him not finding relevancy in school. He did not want to be there! He wanted to be home getting on with his life as an agribusinessman.
In contrast, Andy excelled in the classes I had him for. In fact, on a final presentation about welding, Andy said he and his partner could go into such detail he could take the whole 90 minute block class to do the demonstration. I told him if he could, and the content was great, I would give him an automatic “A.” Well, you guessed it, he got the “A!” He and his partner even bought Reese Cups to give out to classmates for correctly answered questions – now that’s student engagement. Interestingly, teachers would ask how I could get him involved and so engaged in class. It really didn’t have much to do with me, but more to do with the fact that school work in my classes matched real work in Andy’s world – Agriculture. Again, as I said earlier, Andy just wanted school to be over so he could get on with his life of farming.
Andy was not alone. Most students need the relevant connection of their real world, their school world, and their virtual world. Education exists in the larger context of society. When society changes – so too must education, if it is to remain viable. The latest movement to college and career readiness attempts to do just this. Although the phrase “college and career readiness” has become increasingly popular among federal, state, and local education agencies as well as a number of foundations and professional organizations, it can be challenging to define precisely. In today’s economy, a “career” is not just a job. A career provides a family sustaining wage and pathways to advancement and requires postsecondary training or education. A job may be obtained with only a high school diploma but offers no guarantee of advancement or mobility. Being ready for a career means that a high school graduate has the English and mathematics knowledge and skills needed to qualify for and succeed in the postsecondary job training and/or education necessary for their chosen career (i.e., technical/vocational program, community college, apprenticeship, or significant on-the-job training).
The point of this post is that Andy has gone on to become a successful businessman. Of course, readiness for college and careers depends on more than English and mathematics knowledge; to be successful after high school, all graduates must possess the knowledge, habits, and skills that can only come from a rigorous, rich, and well-rounded high school curriculum. I would also add work ethic and a commitment to lifelong learning to the list. I know that Andy works very hard every day. I also know Andy is committed to learning and professional growth. I was so proud last week to hear him say, “Knowledge is power.” Andy went on to say he was shocked at how much time he spent studying on his smartphone. He said, “I’ll sit down at night and start reading about something I want to study and the next thing I know it is 4:00 in the morning.” I just wish we would have done a better job tapping that learning behavior while Andy was in school. Once again proof that we must continue to connect school work to real work for optimal student engagement and career readiness.
I was just blown away by the detail of our conversation about Andy’s latest venture in the alfalfa hay business. Growing alfalfa is intense. For maximum returns, alfalfa producers must strive to: 1) establish good stands, 2) maintain high yields, 3) maintain quality forage, 4) determine optimal stand life, and 5) use efficient marketing practices. Recognizing these goals is one thing, but making it all happen on the farm is not for the faint of heart. We talked in detail about each of the five areas and the conferences, workshops, consultants, and smartphone learning that Andy was taking part in to become the top of his craft. I’ve got to tell you; I am so proud of this young man! He is an exemplar of student success.
Really, I wish we would just talk “student success” as opposed to just college and career readiness or any other terms that people want to add. Student success is a better way to look at it because the ultimate goal is to have our students learning to learn. We must recognize that youth will choose their own paths in life, with some young people charging forward on a traditional four- year college pathway and others moving equally quickly to pathways that are more technically or occupationally oriented. For a student to be successful, they must be able to learn, apply, and adapt in all subject areas. In order to engage the Andy Clark’s of our classrooms we must integrate higher-order thinking skills and real world problem solving into core subjects making learning more rigorous, relevant, and engaging. Both core subject knowledge and skills are necessary for readiness in college, work, and life. Preparing all students with content knowledge and essential skills will empower them to meet new global demands. Thus, setting our students up for SUCCESS.
If you had to choose a better U.S. President between James Buchanan, our 15th President, or Abraham Lincoln, or 16th President, which would you choose. If you are like most historians and political scientists you chose Lincoln. He is considered by most to be one of our best Presidents ever; if not the best in history. This is interesting considering the background of the two individuals. Buchanan had significant, relevant national and international experience and failed; Lincoln had very little national and international experience and succeeded. This is what Maciariello (2014) points out as one of the most challenging aspects of succession planning: “What no one could have known is just how much this man could grow in character and competence as he tried to solve one problem after another in extraordinary times that lasted from his first day in office until his death.” (Maciariello, 2014, p. 242)
Succession is one of the key responsibilities of leadership. The succession decisions should focus on the maintenance of the spirit that keeps the institution alive. Solutions have to fit the specific organization and maintain its spirit of performance. The goal should be to maintain or restore the spirit of the organization while using the leader’s unique strengths to change effective practices and meet pressing challenges (Maciariello, 2014). We must also remember what Peter Drucker taught us about not avoiding weaknesses: “Strong people always have strong weaknesses too.” (Maciariello, 2014, pp. 247-248)
“Whoever tries to pick a man or staff an organization to avoid weakness will end up at best with mediocrity.” ~ Peter Drucker
Abraham Lincoln modeled this for us as well in choosing Ulysses S. Grant as his commander in chief. Grant had many flaws, but was just the right person to carry out Lincoln’s plan for winning the Civil War. Grant did carry out the plan and the war was ended. As the example of Ulysses S. Grant illustrates, individuals with weaknesses often have extraordinary strengths on which distinguished careers can be built. We need to strive to be more like Lincoln and ponder the challenges facing our organizations and then look for the right individuals with the strengths to meet the demands.
“The proof of the sincerity and seriousness of management is uncompromising emphasis on integrity of character. This, above all, has to be symbolized in management’s ‘people’ decisions. For it is character which leadership is exercised; it is character that sets the example and is imitated. Character is not something one can fool people about. The people with whom a person works, and especially subordinates, know in a few weeks whether he or she has integrity or not. They may forgive a person a great deal: incompetence, ignorance, insecurity, or bad manners. But they will not forgive lack of integrity in that person. Nor will they forgive higher management for choosing him.” ~ Peter Drucker
“For the individual there is no society unless he has social status and function. Society is only meaningful if its purpose, its aims, its ideas and its ideals make sense in terms of the individual’s purposes, aims, ideas and ideals. There must be a definite functional relationship between individual life and group life.” ~ Peter Drucker
This week’s lesson from Drucker was very deep and was grounded in the working philosophy of the second paragraph of our Declaration of Independence: “We hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created Equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness.” Drucker believed this meant freedom, equal opportunity, and the right to be treated with dignity according to the Declaration (Maciariello, 2014). The goal would be for us to have a society of functioning organizations in which individuals find meaningful existence and purpose while also being contributing citizen.
In order for organizations to create an environment that meets these criteria, the leaders of the organization must become servants of the people they lead. Service provides the basis for the legitimacy of power and authority (Maciariello, 2014). Legitimate authority in leadership requires taking responsibility for the stewardship of the human, financial, and physical resources of an organization and performing the duties that advance the organization’s mission.
“If the individual is not given social status and function, there can be no society but only a mass of social atoms flying through space without aim or purpose.” ~ Peter Drucker
Does your organization provide dignity, freedom, and equal opportunity to each of its members, thus promoting American ideals?
What do we need to do to be more servant-like in our leadership?
In order for leadership to be effective, the leader must be able to go from leading to creating a system to operationalize the strategic plan. Strategic planning is an outward process of alignment. Therefore, in order to create a system by which to operationalize the goals all of the following must be in place to go from leading to organizationalized:
- Organization policies must be aligned to operationalizing.
- Team members must know his or her role in carrying out the operationalizing of the system.
- There must be a laser focused strategic plan to get the organization where it is going.
- The appropriate resources must be provided, available, and in place.
- There must be measures of effectiveness.
- An accountability system must be in place.
- Professional learning, growth, and development opportunities must be well thought out and deliberate.
If these points are in place then an operational system can be formed to carry out the strategic plan.
- Thinking through the job assignment.
- Interviewing a number of people for the job.
- Looking at what each candidate has done well in the past.
- Discussing a candidate’s performance with those with whom he or she has previously worked.
- Being very clear about the specific assignment to the candidate selected, to the point of having the candidate repeat the description of the assignment to the executive.
A Year With Peter Drucker (Maciariello, 2014, p. 225)
- What are these people doing?
- Are they doing the right things?
- …Then, making what they are doing more visible to everyone.
Drucker believed that when people do poorly in their first assignment, that they do have a chance of doing well in their second. He learned to measure the success rate of people on their second assignment in the form of a casualty rate of those placed in retraining. The success rate of individuals in their second assignment, after not having success in his or her first assignment, is the best measure of the way we prepare people (Maciariello, 2014). The second chance job success rate, therefore is a good indication of the soundness of your organization’s training.
After reading this week’s entry I do believe that, at least in my own case, we need to do a better job of giving individuals who have been moved within the organization a second chance, with training, in another position. Or, maybe even give them the opportunity to go back to his or her old position. As was discussed earlier in the post, we also need to do a better job of selecting people for promotions and moves. Furthermore, organizations that offer people a second chance along with appropriate training for the new position achieve good success rates for people in second assignments. The right job for people who fail repeatedly may be in another organization.
“People given a second chance usually come through. If people try, give them a second chance.” ~ Peter Drucker
This past week I spent time with the great innovators and transformational leaders at Nureva, Inc. as part of an advisory board made up of education professionals to provide feedback and discuss new product designs, functionality, and desired solutions to educational needs. This was very astutely arranged by Kimberleigh Doyle at Nureva Education. During this advisory time we were introduced to Nureva’s newest product, SPAN™. Let me tell you, I was blown away. As you know I am a digital adoptee and believe in the power of what technology tools can do to enhance learning. Click here to learn more about my journey and click here to learn more about SPAN™.
I do need to explain the title of this blog post. With Smart Technologies we had SMART Exchange; a community of SMART Technology users where we could upload lessons, share lessons, and collaborate. Of course, I argued that we would need this for SPAN™. And…of course, I thought it should be called SPANDEX! You know, for SPAN™ Exchange! Can’t you just imagine the website? Anyway, I settled for SPAN™EX, but I am not sure I convinced everyone else.
Nureva, Inc. was founded by technology veterans David Martin and Nancy Knowlton in 2014. They are friends of mine and were also the founders of SMART™ Technologies. As a SMART™ Exemplary Educator I fully understand the functionality and power of interactive white board technology. The designers and innovators at Nureva have transformed the way we can use interactive technology with SPAN™. Basically, there are two interactive projectors and 20 feet of interactive space. The projectors employ solid-state illumination, SSI, and the projectors provides a useful life of 25,000 hours. As the user, you are provided with different backgrounds, called a canvas, then an entire collaborative group can be adding and manipulating content at the same time.
The technology makes “ideation” possible. “Ideation” is a disciplined process of generating ideas and then working those ideas in a team or group environment over a sustained period of time. You have more than likely participated in ideation activities even though you may not have labeled them as such.This group does not even need to be at the same location – as the leader of a virtual school with students in all 92 counties can you see where my thoughts went immediately. Click here for an FAQ about SPAN™.
Check out these videos to see SPAN™ in action:
Additionally, up to 10 individuals can be manipulating content, partaking in ideation, on the projected image, or canvas as its called in SPAN™, on the wall. You have virtual post it notes available. You can write. You can add pictures. And… You can move content by throwing it from one end to the other like we see them do on NCIS Las Angeles. You guessed it, I was sold on the power of this tool immediately! SPAN™ was originally developed as a collaborative tool for business, but the team at Nureva, Inc. very quickly realized the potential for education. Thus, why we were there.
More importantly, however, Nureva made a very smart move and hired two high school interns to work on the project. In fact, they were the ones who taught us how to use SPAN™. They had learned it in a week’s time just by using it with no training. We had the chance to work with Mathieu Chin and Jathaniel Ong during the time we in Calgary and gain insight from them. Let me tell you; I learned a lot from them. I asked them to name the top five important uses of SPAN™ they would advise teachers to use in effective facilitation of learning. Here is their list:
- Collaboration – they believe they learn more when collaborating with other students. I hope this sounds familiar to all reading as we move to college and career readiness standards. Business and industry stakeholders continue to tell us we need to facilitate learning in a way our students learn to collaborate.
- Creation – these two very astute interns recognized the importance of being able to create and produce during the learning process. We were able to witness collaborative creations they had made during learning of chemistry, World War II history, literature, and food science.
- Student Centered – these interns wanted to be involved in the lesson, not just watching a teacher present.
- Transportable – our interns valued that they could collaborate and work in their groups from anywhere. They really saw value in being able to take the learning anywhere and have 24/7 learning. This product is cloud based and changes and collaboration are done in real time.
- Full class involvement – with SPAN™, unlike traditional interactive products, all students can be working in the collaborative space on their computers at once and 10 can actually be manipulating on the projected image at once. Talk about engagement!
As you can see, I am very excited about SPAN™ and its possibilities for facilitating highly effective learning for students. It was so great to be a part of testing the product and providing feedback, but the most important point I want to make here is the power of the insight of students. This experience reminded me how important it is for us to seek the input of our most knowledgeable stakeholder – our student. Kudos to Nureva, Inc. for modeling this for us as they transform the way we use technology in education.